The ADC0804 is a very commonly used 8-bit analog to digital convertor. It is a single channel IC, i.e., it can take only one analog signal as input. The digital outputs vary from 0 to a maximum of 255. The step size can be adjusted by setting the reference voltage at pin9. When this pin is not connected, the default reference voltage is the operating voltage, i.e., Vcc. The step size at 5V is 19.53mV (5V/255), i.e., for every 19.53mV rise in the analog input, the output varies by 1 unit. To set a particular voltage level as the reference value, this pin is connected to half the voltage. For example, to set a reference of 4V (Vref), pin9 is connected to 2V (Vref/2), thereby reducing the step size to 15.62mV (4V/255).
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